Volume 92 Issue 1-4 / 2021
За общото между химията и физиката. II Част
About the common between chemistry and physics. Part II
Abstract: The author has studied polymer deformation-strength indicators for many years. When polymers are distorted at the molecular level, changes in their conformation are mainly observed, which leads to a change in their entropy. This is what makes carbon macromolecules unique. With this overview, the reason for this uniqueness is sought. It begins with the physical units of measurement, which are not related to the so-called world constants. The unit of mass is proposed to be: ‘1 kg of mass is equal to the masses of 5.018 450 806×10 exp 25 atoms of carbon-12’. The unit of meter to be ‘1 m is 1/300 000 000th of the length travelled by light in vacuum in one second’. It is desirable that the basic units of measurement include ‘unity of atomic mass (u)’, which is widely used as a measure of mass in the micro world. Gravitational masses, which are determined on scales under strict rules, should be called zero, because inertial masses are determined from them. Commonly used term ‘work’ refers only to the action of a mechanical force. In fact, a more general concept should be ‘work is the transmission (carrying, causing) of any motion from one body or substance to another body or substance.’ Despite equating work with energy and having the same unit of measurement, energy is more comprehensive in concept and applicability. ‘Energy is the change of any motion,’ or more briefly, ‘energy is the change of motion.’ Motion is a process that changes the location of a particle, a body, or a set of both, in space or between them. Any initiation, change, or cessation of motion involves absorption or release of energy. Unfortunately, the concept of ‘potential energy’ is also used in physics, persistently confusing this ‘energy’ with ‘force’. The equation E = mc2 was published by Poincaré three years before Einstein and should be named after both authors. The most important question it poses is how valid the equation is in the macro world in which we live. In the sun, in nuclear power plants, in chemical processes, etc., only part of the masses of the starting substances, always below 9%, is converted into energy. Is there a conversion limit that amazingly coincides with the mass-deficit of atomic nuclei? Some physicists claim that the greatest success of the 20th century was the creation of the standard model of elementary particles. However, it raises many questions. What is the role of the three generations in the construction of matter, why is there no regularity between the masses of the three generations, why are hyperparticles not included in the model? According to the author’s calculations, there can only be protons and neutrons in the nuclei of atoms. Calculated masses of the nuclei do not allow for the presence of other particles. An examination of the 20th century development of the periodic table of the chemical elements shows how deeply the theory of the systematic arrangement of the elements has developed. After solving the Schrödinger equation and obeying the Pauli principle, four quantum numbers are revealed that determine the quantum-provided states of the electrons by orbitals and suborbitals. The empirical rule of Madelung-Klechkowski leads to the system of elements we know so far. The great difference in the properties (especially physical) of the elements of the same group indicates that colour difference used in the system should be expanded. Conformational statistics assumes that the spatial shape of macromolecules is the result of a probabilistic process, meaning that their shape is determined by entropy, which decreases when the molecules are stretched and increases when they are compressed, overcoming only the energy barrier for rotation about the C–C axis with the links in the main chain. Therefore, living organisms carry out their movements only by changing the shape of their molecules by using the least possible entropy energy. According to this indicator, carbon-based polymers cannot have a competitor.
Pages: 1 - 13 (13 pages)
Кинетика на реакциите в промишлени процеси
Reaction kinetics in industrial processes
Abstract: The paper provides a theoretical analysis of the role of reaction kinetics for solving principal problems in the chemical industry (biotechnology, heat energy), namely an optimal design of new devices and an optimal control of active processes. Thermodynamic and hydrodynamic approximations for industrial process rate modelling are presented and analysed. A relation between Onsager’s linearity coefficient and mass transfer coefficient is put forward
Pages: 14 - 19 (6 pages)
Празник на химията 2021 „Химията в наши дни“ (28–29 май 2021 г.)
Chemistry festival 2021. Chemistry today (28–29 May 2021)
Pages: 20 - 26 (7 pages)
В памет на професор дн Славчо Раковски
In memory of Professor Slavcho Rakovsky, DSc
Pages: 27 - 28 (2 pages)
News in brief
Pages: 29 - 29 (1 pages)
Pages: 30 - 32 (3 pages)
In memoriam
In memoriam
Pages: 33 - 36 (4 pages)